US History Unit 6

FDR’s Quarantine Speech called for an international “quarantine of aggressor nations”. This was an alternative to the political climate of American neutrality. The speech caused protest by non-interventionists and foes to intervene. Although no countries were mentioned in the speech, it was interpreted as referring to Italy, Germany, and Japan. Roosevelt suggested the use of economic pressure, a forceful response, but less direct than outright aggression. FDR’s Four Freedoms speech was about the values of democracy behind the bipartisan consensus on international involvement that existed at the time. A famous quote from the speech is “As men do not live by bread alone, they do not fight by armaments alone.” In the speech he lists the benefits of democracy, which includes economic opportunity, employment, social security, and the promise of “adequate health care”.

The Atlantic Charter was a policy statement issued in August 14, 1941 that defined the Allied goals for the post-war world early in WWII. The Charter stated the ideal goals of the war: no territorial aggrandizement; no territorial changes made against the wishes of the people; restoration of self-government to those deprived of it; reduction of trade restrictions; global cooperation to secure better economic and social conditions for all; freedom from fear and want; freedom of the seas; and abandonment of the use of force, as well as disarmament of aggressor nations.

CTYP conferences were held as a strategy meeting between Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill. The main outcome of the conference was the commitment to the opening of a second front against Nazi Germany by the Western Allies.

The UN Charter was the foundational treaty of the United Nations. It is a constituent treaty, and all members are bound by its articles. Article 103 of the Charter states that obligations to the United Nations prevail over all other treaty obligations. Most Countries in the world have now ratified the Charter.

The Marshall Plan was the American initiative to aid Europe, in which the United States gave $17 billionĀ  in economic support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II.

http://marshallfoundation.org/marshall/the-marshall-plan/

http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/

Group 3:
Communism International- an international communist organization initiated in Moscow during March 1919. The International intended to fight “by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and for the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the State”

Joseph Stalin- Joseph Stalin (1878-1953) was the dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1929 to 1953. Under Stalin, the Soviet Union was transformed from a peasant society into an industrial and military superpower. However, he ruled by terror, and millions of his own citizens died during his brutal reign.

Nikita Khrushchev- Nikita Khrushchev was the leader of the Soviet Union during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1963.

Yuri Gagarin- first man to orbit the earth. He was in spacecraft Vostok 1

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Homestead and Morrill Acts

The Homestead Act provided that any adult citizen who had never borne arms against the U.S. government could claim 160 acres of surveyed government land. They were required to improve the land by building a dwelling and cultivating the land. After 5 years on the land, the original filer was entitled to the land with a small registration fee. Title could also be acquired after only a 6-month residency and trivial improvements, provided the claimant paid the government $1.25 per acre. The act didn’t help poverty. Few laborers and farmers could afford to build a farm or acquire the necessary tools, seed, and livestock.
The Morrill Act of 1862 was also known as the Land Grant College Act. The land-grant act was introduced by a congressman from Vermont named Justin Smith Morrill. He envisioned the financing of agricultural and mechanical education. He wanted to assure that education would be available to those in all social classes.
It was a major boost to higher education in America. The grant was originally set up to establish institutions is each state that would educate people in agriculture, home economics, mechanical arts, and other professions that were practical at the time.

http://www.history.com/topics/homestead-act

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Morrill.html

Roaring Twenties

Demand side economics are the outgrowth of Keynesian economics developed by John Meynard Keynes. It is the concept of counter cyclical budget management. The Smoot-Hawley Tariff raised the tariffs and the Dawes plan solved reparation problems. In demand side economics, the government assumes short term large debts so that jobs are created to stimulate localized economies which created taxes.
Supply side economics were developed by republicans following WWI. It controls bank lending so that corporations assume small debts to increase production and stimulate cost reductions. It created long term and short term jobs but no direct assistance by the government. The Dawes plan was to loan money to Germany so they can pay off war debts and it buys us goods.

http://m.businessdictionary.com/definition/demand-side-economics.html

http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/SupplySideEconomics.html

WJ Bryan and Lincoln’s Cooper Union Speech

William Jennings Bryan delivered his “Cross of Gold” speech on July 9, 1896. It was the most famous speech in American political history. The issue at the time of the speech was whether to endorse the free coinage of silver at a ratio of silver to gold of 16 to 1. Bryan talked about how we need the gold standard for a good government. He says that America is the most enlightened nation on earth and it doesn’t have a gold standard. Gold standards are said to be the standard of civilization so this made the people want a gold standard. After this speech, Bryan was nominated for President on the fifth ballot.
Abraham Lincoln’s election to the Presidency as a Republican was in 1860. Lincoln knew the Southern Slave States weren’t in support of him since he was against slavery. The South knew the Republicans were not in support of keeping slavery in the South. They also did not want all the slaves set free. Lincoln used this speech to try to calm these people and keep them from seceding from the United States.

http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5354/

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trt039.html

Texas Becomes a State

Mexico controlled the territory where Texas is now until 1836. In 1836 Texas won its independence and became an independent republic. In 1845 Texas joined the United States as the 28th state.
The United States began thinking about the annexation of Texas after the Louisiana Purchase 1803. In 1836 Texas voted in favor of annexation. For a while the United States did not want to accept Texas for fear of going to war with Mexico. After lots of sorting things out in the United States, Texas was finally added as a state.

https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/mga02

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Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton

The Burr and Hamilton duel was from long standing political and personal competition and bitterness. Their tensions had developed over the course of a few years. Hamilton said bad things about Burr’s character to the public which made things worse. After the duel Burr was accused of murder but the charges were dismissed. The harsh things said about him after the duel put an end to his political career.
In Weehawken in New Jersey duel took place. Burr shot Hamilton and he was wounded very badly. Hamilton was taken to the home of William Bayard in Manhattan where he died.

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http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/duel/peopleevents/pande17.html

Dances with Wolves Summary

A man named John Dunbar gets stranded out in the middle of nowhere when he gets lost from his group of soldiers. He keeps a journal during the time he lives alone in a house and only has a horse. The Indians in the area start coming around his house area and he meets them. They try to communicate with him to figure out if the other soldiers will take over their land. He knows that the soldiers eventually will but does not want to tell them that.
He starts becoming close with the Indian people and meets a woman that is white but was raised with the Indians. She is now part of their community and one of them. The Indians start to get close to John and they help him and he helps them. They see him playing with a wolf and call him “dances with wolves”. Another Indian tribe threatens them and they end up fighting them. Before this, John is captured by his soldiers but they call him a trader and torture him. The Indians rescue John and defeat the other tribe. In the end they still get taken over by american soldiers which is very sad.

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http://m.imdb.com/title/tt0099348/